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Flood is land covered by water that is not generally covered by water. This means that any time a river, lake, or other body of water overflows its banks, it’s technically flooding. However, most people think of the more catastrophic types of floods, as those are the type that cause widespread damage and loss of life. Unless a flood causes financial damage or loss of life to humans or livestock, it’s not considered a substantial flood. Some precautions can be taken, such as creating flood maps and working with nature to prevent excessive flooding. Recent developments in flood prediction empowers people to be more prepared. These predictions won’t be able to prevent the floods but enable people and livestock to get to safety in time. Flood warnings are taken very seriously as lives depend on it.
Man-made disasters are the result of human intent, error, or as a result of failed systems. They can be divided into categories such as terrorism, technological hazards, transportation hazards and environmental accidents. Examples of man-made disasters include stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills, nuclear explosions/nuclear radiation.
Natural disaster occurs due to geological instabilities repeatedly triggered by shifts in tectonic plates and seismic activity. Seismology is the investigation of earthquakes and seismic waves which were caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. Geographic Information System (GIS) aids to manage the effect of Earthquakes and other disasters by evaluating risk and hazard locations in relation to inhabitants, property, and natural resources, Integrating data and enabling the understanding of the possibility of an emergency to manage an incident and recognizing staging area locations, operational branches and divisions, and other important incident management needs.
Global warming is the long-term heating of Earth’s climate system discovered since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900) due to human actions, primarily fossil fuel burning, which intensifies heat-trapping greenhouse gas concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere. The term is often used interchangeably with the term climate change, though the latter refers to both human- and naturally produced warming and the effects it has on our planet. Since the pre-industrial period, human activities are estimated to have increased Earth’s global average temperature by about 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit), a number that is currently increasing by 0.2 degrees Celsius (0.36 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade
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Disaster mitigation measures are those that eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs. There are three types of mitigation plans: Local, Tribal, and State.
Prevention and mitigation approaches should be based on the risk assessment and can be considered in relation to land use planning and building codes, essential infrastructure, structural works and landscape & environment.
Disaster Management & Mitigation strategies include the following:
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Environmental engineering is the implementation of scientific and engineering ideologies to enhance and preserve the environment to: protect human well-being, protect nature's beneficial ecosystems, and improve environmental-related augmentation of the quality of human life.
Geoscience is the technical learning of the planet Earth and its various natural geologic schemes. In an progressively globalized world, with a swiftly increasing population, earth science has an vital role to perform in building resilience societies to withstand natural hazards and climate change.
Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic waves that pass through and around the earth. With the help of Seismologist, Seismic Zonation map of a country is developed which acts as a guide to the seismic status of a region and its susceptibility to earthquakes.
Hydrology is the science that incorporates the study of water on the Earth's surface and beneath the surface of the Earth, the occurrence and drive of water, the physical and chemical characteristics of water, and its association with the living and material constituents of the environment.
Coastal geography is the study of the continually altering region between the sea and the land, incorporating both the physical and the human of the coastline. It includes understanding coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, residue movement and climate, and the ways in which humans interact with the coast
Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary area of science concentrating on the study of the detrimental effects of various chemical, biological, and physical agents on living organisms in the ecosystems, including humans. It occupies an important role among toxicology, environmental health, and public policy.
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A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data, mapping and investigating feature events on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations, such as query and statistical analysis, with maps. GIS accomplishes location-based information and delivers tools for display and analysis of various statistics, including population features, economic progress opportunities, and vegetation types.
Early warning systems are resources by which people obtain relevant and timely information in a organized way prior to a disaster in order to make informed decisions and take action. The major elements include satellite data acquisition, Sensing and Monitoring Systems, Control Centres.
The floodway is usually identified by an encroachment analysis, using an equal loss of transference on opposite sides of the stream. For purposes of floodway analysis, the floodplain fringe removed by the encroachments is assumed to be completely blocked.
When a hazard event occurs, triggering a loss of life and damage to infrastructure, it highlights the reality that society and its assets are vulnerable to such events. Streaming disaster risk management into development planning can reverse the current state of rising disaster influence. Furthermore, when countries rebuild stronger, faster and more inclusively after disasters, they can diminish the impact on people’s livelihoods and welfare, possibly limiting global average losses.
Historically, principal importance in disaster management has been placed on the performance of inhabited structures, the failure of which would pose direct danger of life loss or injury. Also it becomes obvious that survival and rapid recovery of networked infrastructure service systems is critical to reducing the impacts of both natural and technological disasters.